Practic Mode Paper-II & III
Sets, Relations, Functions, Pigeonhole Principle, Inclusion-Exclusion Principle, Equivalence
and Partial Orderings, Elementary Counting Techniques. Probability, Measure(s) for information
and Mutual information.
Computability : Models of computation-Finite Automata, Pushdown Automata. Non-determinism
and NFA, DPDA and PDAs and Languages accepted by these structures. Grammars, Languages,
Non-computability and Examples of non-computable problems.
Graph : Definition, walks, paths, trails, connected graphs, regular and bipartite graphs, cycles
and circuits. Tree and rooted tree. Spanning trees. Eccentricity of a vertex radius and diameter
of a graph. Central Graphs. Centre(s) of a tree. Hamiltonian and Eulerian graphs, Planar
Groups : Finite fields and Error correcting/detecting codes.
Propositional (Boolean) Logic, Predicate Logic, Well-formed-formulae (WFF), Satisfiability
Logic Families : TTL, ECL and C-MOS gates. Boolean algebra and Minimization of Boolean
functions, Flip-flops-types, race condition and comparison, Design of combinational and
Representation of Integers : Octal, Hex, Decimal and Binary. 2’s complement and 1’s
complement arithmetic, Floating point representation.
||Programming in C
Programming in C : Elements of C-Tokens, identitiers, data types in C. Control structures in
C. Sequence, selection and iteration(s), Structured data types in C arrays, struct, union, string
||O-O Programming Concepts with C++
Class, object, instantiation, Inheritance, polymorphism and
C++ Programming : Elements of C++-Tokens, identifiers, Variables and constants, Data types,
Operators, Control statements, Functions parameter passing, Class and objects, Constructors
and destructors, Overloading, Inheritance, Templates, Exception handling.
||Relational Database Design and SQL
E R diagrams and their transformation to relational design, normalization-1NF, 2NF, 3NF,
BCNF and 4NF. Limitations of 4NF and BCNF.
SQL : Data Definition language (DDL), Data Manipulation Language (DML), Data Control
language (DCL) commands. Database objects like-Views, indexes, sequences, synonyms, data
||Data and File structures
Data, Information, Definition of data structure, Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees,
graphs, priority queues and heaps.
File Structures : Fields, records and files, Sequential, direct, index-sequential and relative
files, Hashing, inverted lists and multi-lists B trees and B+ trees.
Network fundamentals : Local Area Networks (LAN), Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN),
Wide Area Networks (WAN), Wireless Networks, Inter Networks.
Reference Models : The OSI model, TCP/IP model.
Data Communication : Channel capacity, Transmission Media-twisted pair, coaxial cables,
fibre-optic cables, wireless transmission-radio, microwave infrared and millimeter waves.
Lightwave transmission, Thelephones-local loop, trunks, multiplexing, switching, narrowband
ISDN, broadband ISDN, ATM, High speed LANS, Cellular Radio. Communication satellitesgeosynchronous
Internetworking : Switch/Hub, Bridge, Router, Gateways, Concatenated virtual circuits,
Tunnelling, Fragmentation, Firewalls.
Routing : Virtual circuits and datagrams, Routing algorithms, Conjestion control.
Network Security : Cryptography-public key, secret key, Domain Name System (DNS)-Electronic
Mail and Worldwide Web (WWW), The DNS, Resource Records, Name servers, E-mail
architecture and Serves.
||System Software and Compilers
Assembly language fundamentals (8085 based assembly language programming). Assemblers-
2 pass and single-pass. Macros and macroprocessors.
Loading, linking, relocation, program relocatability, Linkage editing.
Text editors, Programming Environments, Debuggers and program generators.
Compilation and Interpretation. Bootstrap compilers. Phases of compilation process. Lexical
analysis. Lex package on Unix system.
Context free grammars, Parsing and parse trees, Representation of parse (derivation) trees as
rightmost and left most derivations. Bottom up parsers-shift-reduce, operator precedence, and
LR, YACC package on Unix system.
Topdown parsers-left recursion and its removal, Recursive descent parser. Predictive parser,
Intermediate codes-Quadruples, Triples, Intermediate code generation, Code generation, Code
Main functions of operating systems. Multiprogramming, multiprocessing, and multitasking.
Memory Management : Virtual memory, paging, fragmentation.
Concurrent Processing : Mutual exclusion, Critical regions, lock and unlock.
Scheduling : CPU scheduling, I/O scheduling, Resource scheduling, Deadlock and scheduling
algorithms. Banker’s algorithm for deadlock handling.
Introduction, Memory management, Support for concurrent process, Scheduling, System
deadlock, Multiprogramming system, I/O management, Distributed operating systems.
System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) : Steps, Water fall model, Prototypes, Spiral model.
Software Metrics : Software Project Management.
Software Design : System design, detailed design, function oriented design, object oriented
design, user interface design. Design level metrics.
Coding and testing : Testing level metrics, Software quality and reliability, Clean room
approach, software reengineering.
||Current Trends and Technologies
Parallel Computing, Mobile Computing, Electronic Commerce : Framework, Media Convergence of Applications, Consumer
Applications, Organisation Applications.
Electronic Payment Systems , Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), Digital Libraries and Data Warehousing.
Software Agents, Broadband Telecommunications, Data Warehousing, Data Mining.
Object, messages, classes, encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism aggregation, abstract classes
generalization as extension and restriction, Object oriented design. Multiple inheritance,
HTML, DHTML, XML, Scripting, Java, Servelets, Applets.
The Unix System : File system, process management, bourne shell shell variables, command
Filters and Commands : Pr, head, tail, cut, paste, sort, uniq, tr, join, etc., grep, egrep,
fgrep, etc., sed, awk, etc.
System Calls (like) : Creat, open, close, read, write, iseek, link, unlink, stat, fstat, umask,
chmod, exec, fork, wait, system.
||Theory of Computation
Finite Automata, Pushdown Automata, Non-determinism and NFA, DPDA, and PDAs and
languages accepted by these structures. Grammars, Languages-types of grammars-type 0, type
1, type 2 and type 3. The relationship between types of grammars, and finite machines.
Pushdown automata and Context Free Grammars. Lexical Analysis-regular expressions and
regular languages, LEX package on Unix. Conversion of NFA to DFA. Minimizing the number
of states in a DFA. Compilation and Interpretation. Bootstrap compilers.
Context free grammars, Parsing and parse trees. Representation of parse (derivation) trees as
rightmost and leftmost derivations. Bottom up parsers-shift-reduce, operator precedence, and
LR, YACC package on Unix system. Topdown parsers-left recursion and its removal. Recursive
descent parser. Predictive parser, Intermediate codes-Quadruples, triples, Intermediate code
generation, code generation, Code optimization.Theory of Computation : Formal language, Need for formal computational models, Noncomputational
problems, diagonal argument and Russel’s paradox.
Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA), Non-deterministic Finite Automaton (NFA), Regular
languages and regular sets. Equivalence of DFA and NFA. Minimizing the number of states
of a DFA. Non-regular languages and Pumping lemma.
Pushdown Automaton (PDA), Deterministic Pushdown Automaton (DPDA), Non-equilvalence
of PDA and DPDA.
Context free Grammars : Greibach Normal Form (GNF) and Chomsky Normal Form (CNF),
Ambiguity, Parse Tree Representation of Derivations, Equivalence of PDA’s and CFG’s. Parsing
techniques for parsing of general CFG’s-Early’s, Cook-Kassami-Younger (CKY) and Tomita’s
Linear Bounded Automata (LBA) : Power of LBA. Closure properties.
Turing Machine (TM) : One tape, multitape. The notions of time and space complexity in
terms of TM, Construction of TM for simple problems. Computational complexity.
Chomsky Hierarchy of languages : Recursive and recursively-enumerable languages.
Display systems, Input devices, 2D Geometry, Graphic operations, 3D Graphics, Animation,
Graphic standard, Applications.
Concepts, Storage Devices, Input Tools, Authoring Tools, Application, Files.
Definitions, AI approach for solving problems.
Automated Reasoning with propositional logic and predicate logic-fundamental proof procedure,
refutation, resolution, refinements to resolution (ordering/pruning/restriction strategies).
State space representation of problems, bounding functions, breadth first, depth first, A, A*,
AO*, etc. Performance comparison of various search techniques.
Frames, scripts, semantic nets, production systems, procedural representations, Prolog
Components of an expert system, Knowledge representation and Acquisition techniques,
Building expert system and Shell.
RTNs, ATNs, Parsing of Ambiguous CFGs. Tree Adjoining Grammars (TAGs).
Systems approach to planning, Designing, Development, Implementation and Evaluation of